These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona, but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well understood. Downslope winds also occur in the foothills of the Appalachian mountains of the United States, and they can be as strong as other downslope winds  and unusual compared to other foehn winds in that the relative humidity typically changes little due to the increased moisture in the source air mass.  Oil is being saved by using wind for powering cargo ships by use of the mechanical energy converted from the wind's kinetic energy using very large kites. The equator would also be hot as a furnace. Zones of high (H) and low (L) pressure are labeled on this weather map. Strong-framed, well-built houses leveled off foundations and swept away; steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged; tall buildings collapse or have severe structural deformations; cars, trucks, and trains can be thrown approximately 1 mile (1.6 km).  Once winds exceed 135 knots (250 km/h), homes completely collapse, and significant damage is done to larger buildings. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79,000 Picture a column of air from the ground to the top of the troposphere (TRO-puhs-sfeer) — that layer of atmosphere in which we live. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%. This generates a line of puffy little cumulus (KEWM-u-lus) clouds that die out after the sun sets. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces. One that appears to fall as runs to the right has a negative slope. The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics towards the Earth's equator. mercury Sometimes called quicksilver, mercury is an element with the atomic number 80. 3.10 only shows the circulation cells and winds in the Northern Hemisphere. , Wind direction is usually expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates.  United States wildfire operations revolve around a 24-hour fire day that begins at 10:00 a.m. because of the predictable increase in intensity resulting from the daytime warmth.. Tornadoes are vortices, and so are the tornado-like swirls inside a glass of tea that’s been stirred with a spoon. How is wind formed? The wind barb shows the speed using "flags" on the end. Founded in 2003, Science News for Students is a free, award-winning online publication dedicated to providing age-appropriate science news to learners, parents and educators. In Poland, an example is the halny wiatr. Wind is the result of the changing location of air masses. Free educator resources are available for this article. Each full flag depicts 10 knots (19 km/h) of wind. While taking off with a tailwind may be necessary under certain circumstances, a headwind is generally desirable.  The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s. Have you ever wondered what causes this phenomenon? troposphere The lowest level of Earth's atmosphere. ", There are many different forms of sailing ships, but they all have certain basic things in common. current A fluid — such as of water or air — that moves in a recognizable direction. , Wind also limits tree growth.  When the poles of Mars are exposed to sunlight after their winter, the frozen CO2 sublimates, creating significant winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 kilometers per hour (250 mph), which subsequently transports large amounts of dust and water vapor over its landscape. Anyone can earn cyclostrophic An adjective that describes winds whose motions are held in balance by the matched, counteracting effects of the local pressure-gradient force and the rotational (centripetal) force. Easterly winds, on average, dominate the flow pattern across the poles, westerly winds blow across the mid-latitudes of the earth, polewards of the subtropical ridge, while easterlies again dominate the tropics. Smoke rings are donut-shaped vortices. Can you now explain why you might feel a cool breeze in coastal areas? Its base may be flat and fairly close to the ground (just 1,000 meters, or 3,300 feet up). Sometimes, stationary fronts can become hung up in valleys. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south. density The measure of how condensed some object is, found by dividing its mass by its volume. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal  The Sirocco brings dust from north Africa into southern Europe because of the movement of extratropical cyclones through the Mediterranean.  Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler lidars and radars, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. Although few people give much thought to wind — unless it’s threatening — those rivers of moving air drive the weather in ways that rule our environment. 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Weather constitutes the actual conditions that occur at any time and place.  Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s. Roofs severely stripped; mobile homes overturned or badly damaged; loss of exterior doors; windows and other glass broken. It is usually described in terms of particular features, such as air pressure, humidity, moisture, any precipitation (rain, snow or ice), temperature and wind speed. They’ve curved so much to the right that they often are speeding eastward at an impressive clip. The westerlies can be particularly strong, especially in the southern hemisphere, where there is less land in the middle latitudes to cause the flow pattern to amplify, which slows the winds down. It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms, weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains, radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings, wind turbines, and sailboats.
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